The importance of wetland, the biodiversity they contain and the benefits that we gain from them is the need of the hour. Wetland’s are areas of marsh, fen, peatland and soon, are considered the most biologically diverse of all ecosystems. There are an estimated 1.20 lakh described species of fishes molluscs, reptiles, plants and mammals. Almost 45% of all fishes live in fresh water and 25% of all molluscs are fresh water species. An estimate 15,000 fish, 43,000 amphibians and 5600 dragonflies depend on fresh water habits.
Wetland provides us with a wide range of services many of which are estimated tour survival. Recharging of groundwater reservoirs, water purification and water treatment, flood control and storm protection fisheries and recreational opportunities offered by wetlands are valued at US$ 14 trillion annually. But wetlands are extremely vulnerable to human activity. Agriculture, urban and industrial development introduction of invasive species, population and overexploitation all contribute to their ongoing degradation grounds of valuable fish and shellfish. Mink and other mammals species thrive on wetland, as do myriad plans and insects, amphibians and reptiles. The utility of wetlands has been unfortunately poorly understood.
They have been regarded as useless,or worse seen solely as breeding grounds for mosquitoes, other insects or as sources of odours.Vast number of wetlands have been drained and destroyed to accommodate agriculture dams and human habitation. It is estimated that over half of the wetlands in the Continental United States have been lost since the 18th century and the wetlands elsewhere have fared no better with destruction of wetlands has come destruction of biodiversity both in the wetlands across themselves and downstream. For instance nitrogen fertilisers runoff from far has over exhausted the capacity, of wetlands to filter pollutants creating dead zines in arms such as the Gulf of Mexico, where algae blooms filed by third and other nutrients thriving diverse ocean ecology.
Wetlands in a sense are a biodiversity laboratory. For one the diversity of wetlands in condition in wetlands set the environment fur meters that allow for encourage the evolution of novel survival strategies. According to the environmental protection agency for example many bag species hore species have special adaptations to low nutrient levels, acidic water and mud finite in summer often include rare species that whether drought such as seeds, eggs and eyes and growing to mature from when the ground is watery again. Mangroves swamps are full of shrubs and trees that have adapted to salty involving water, nitrogen and sulphur. Their plants and rich soil may provide one buffer against global climate change by staring carbon instead oxide.
In dollar terms the services wetland water purification functions equivalent to a five million dollar was treatment plant. Wetlands act like giant sponges, stirring and floodwater. In some cases wetlands have been destroyed to create artificial flood control. Harvested wetlands along the Mississippi river once stored go days worth of floodwater. Many familiar animals- ducks, bears, dears-make use of wetlands. It is difficult to converse and restore wetlands, the short term interest of landowners and farmers frequently clashed with the long term benefits of sustainable natural ecosystem.
Government at all levels are becoming involved in wetland restoration efforts in many parts of the world also play a vital role in preserving natural wetlands. Natural systems are so complex that they are difficult to restore, once highly polluted and degraded. `The Work Of The Nature', book written by Yvonne Baskin to return previously damaged lands to ecological service should be encouraged. There are millions of nectary of forest, range lands and marsh one very continents that might be returned to health and productivity if complex environments could be resulted as skilfully as they are being dismantled. Thus it is the need of the hour to preserve wetlands as they are vital source of preservation of biodiversity the words over for generations do come on the planet earth as we have to keep it for posterity.